Populism is on the rise - especially ahy vọng Europe's right, and in the US, where it helped crown Mr Trump.Bạn sẽ xem: Populism là gì
Italy's popumenu Five sầu Star Movement and anti-immigrant League parties have sầu emerged as two major players in the lakiểm tra elections - the most recent of several such results in Europe.
Bạn đang xem: Populism là gì
In political science, populism is the idea that society is separated into two groups at odds with one another - "the pure people" and "the corrupt elite", according lớn Cas Mudde, author of Populism: A Very Short Introduction.
The term is often used as a kind of shorthvà political insult. Britain's Labour leader, Jeremy Corbyn, has been accused of populism over his party's khẩu hiệu "for the many, not the few" - but that's not quite the same thing.
The word "is generally misused, especially in a European context," according to lớn Benjamin Moffitt, author of The Global Rise of Populism.
The true populist leader claims to lớn represent the unified "will of the people". He stands in opposition to an enemy, often embodied by the current system - aiming to "drain the swamp" or tackle the "liberal elite".
"It generally attaches itself khổng lồ the right in a European context… but that's not an iron rule," Dr Moffitt said.Popumenu parties can be anywhere on the political spectrum. In Latin America, there was Venezuela's late President Chávez. In Spain, there is the Podemos party, and in Greece the label has also been applied to Syriza. All these are on the left.
But "most successful populists today are on the right, particularly the radical right," Prof Mudde said.
Politicians "lượt thích Marine Le Pen in France, Viktor Orcung cấp in Hungary, và Donald Trump in the US, combine populism with nativism and authoritarianism," he added.
image captionIn Italy, supporters of the popudanh mục Five sầu Star movement brandish letters spelling out their government ambitions
Commentators - from Time magazine to the President of the European Commission - have been warning about the rise of right-wing populism for years.
"Political scientists have sầu been catching on to this for the last 25-30 years," Dr Moffitt says - but admits "there's been an acceleration."
Experts point lớn both societal changes like multiculturalism & globalism, and more concrete crises as behind the rise of popudanh sách parties in Europe.
The swell in support seemed to happen "from 2008 - and particularly in 2011, when the banking crisis turned into lớn a sovereign debt crisis", he said.
It was a rare occasion when an elite class - the wealthy bankers - could be identified as more or less directly responsible for a crisis which affected the majority of society.
In his book The Global Rise of Populism, Dr Moffitt argues that there are other traits associated with the typical popumenu leader.
One is "bad manners", or behaving in a way that's not typical of politicians - a tactic employed by President Trump và the Philippines' President Duterte.The other, he says, is "perpetuating a state of crisis" - và always seeming to be on the offensive sầu.
"A populist leader who gets inlớn power is 'forced' to lớn be in a permanent chiến dịch to lớn convince his people that he is not establishment - and never will be," according lớn Prof Nadia Urbinati from Columbia University.
She argues that popucác mục content is "made of negatives" - whether it is anti-politics, anti-intellectualism, or anti-elite. Here lies one of the populism's strengths - it is versatile.
Another common thread aý muốn popudanh mục leaders is they tend to dislượt thích the "complicated democratic systems" of modern government - preferring direct democracy like referendums instead, according to lớn Prof Bull.
That also ties in to lớn its liên kết lớn authoritarianism, he argues - a laông chồng of trust in the established system gives rise to lớn "strongman" leaders.
"Ultimately, the leader makes the decision in a way that just isn't possible in traditional democracies," he says.
That sentiment is perhaps best embodied by the late left-wing Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez, who once said: "I am not an individual - I am the people".
Such thinking "can lead khổng lồ people thinking they're infallible," Dr Moffitt said. "It restructures the political space in a new and scary way".
"In order khổng lồ garner tư vấn, they're quicker than the establishment các buổi party to lớn make offers, or khổng lồ promise to lớn change things… that on closer inspection may not turn out to lớn be feasible," he said.