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Bạn đang xem: Valuation là gìWhen Wall Street finally realized its dot-com valuations were off by 90% khổng lồ 100%, the stoông chồng market damage was spectacular.
More troubling was the finding that the source of valuation for cost estimates was often unclear or not reported.
Uninformed and inefficient trade of environmental quality for capital inflows may be due khổng lồ an incorrect valuation of environmental damages.
The discussion & valuation of pension promises is presented intuitively, making it easy khổng lồ follow và lớn understand the economics behind pension funding and accounting.
Table 1 indicates the valuation for hourly costs (social security contributions included), & tariffs for personnel involved in either health care or coordination.
Mediation among truyền thông means recognition & valuation of independent, if marginalized, indistinct, & indecipherable voices.
The valuation of time otherwise spent on leisure activities or unpaid work is more difficult (9;20).
Contingent valuation surveys can also be used to estimate the willingness of consumers to lớn pay for public broadcasting.
Now monetary exchange is challenged by costly deterministic matching, & both valuation of money and relative extent of the competing trade mechanisms are determined endogenously.
In the absence of markets & money as a commensurable unit of valuation, economic actors would be unable lớn make rational decisions concerning productive sầu alternatives.
We shall return to lớn the problem of extending a valuation khổng lồ a measure, but only to lớn the generated algebra, not the generated -algebra.
These marginal contributions should be determined by including in the valuation process an understanding of the scientific properties of the environmental service.
The standard approaches to economic evaluation equate "societal valuation" with health gain measured in (equally weighted) quality-adjusted life-years.