You can usually tell when your friends are happy or angry by the looks on their faces or by their actions. This is useful because reading their emotional expressions helps you to know how to lớn respond to them. Emotions haveevolvedto lớn help us respond khổng lồ important situations & khổng lồ convey our intentions to lớn others. But does raising the eyebrows và rounding the mouth say the same thing in Minneapolis as it does in Madagascar? Much research on emotional expressions has centered on such questions.
According lớn Paul Ekman, the leading researcher in this area, people speak and understand substantially the same "facial language". Studies by Ekman"s group have sầu demonstrated that humans tóm tắt a phối of universal emotional expressions that testify khổng lồ the common biological heritage of the human species. Smiles, for example, signal happiness and frowns indicate sadness on the faces of people in such far- flung places as Argentimãng cầu, nhật bản, Spain, Hungary, Poland , Sumatra ,the United States, Vietphái mạnh, the jungles of New Guinea , & the Eskimo villages north of Artic Circle. Ekman and his colleagues clayên that people everywhere can recognize at least seven basic emotions: sadness, fear, anger, disgust, contempt, happiness, & surprise. There are, however, huge differences across cultures in both the context và intensity of emotional displays - the so called display rules. In many Asian cultures, for example, children are taught lớn control emotional responses - especially negative sầu ones- while many American children are encouraged to express their feelings more openly. Regardless of culture, however, emotions usually show themselves, to lớn some degree , in people"s behavior. From their first days of life, babies produce facial expressions that communicate their feelings.
The ability khổng lồ read facial expressions develops early, too. Very young children pay cđại bại attention lớn facial expressions, và by age five sầu, they nearly equal adults in their skill at reading emotions on people"s faces. This evidence all points khổng lồ a biological underpinning for our abilities khổng lồ express và interpret a basic set of human emotions. Moreover, as Charles Darwin pointed out over a century ago, some emotional expressions seem khổng lồ appear across species boundaries. Cross - cultural psychologists tell us that certain emotional responses carry different meanings in different cultures. For example, what emotion vị you suppose might be conveyed by sticking out your tongue? For Americans, this might indicate disgust, while in China it can signify surprise. Likewise, a grin on an American face may indicate joy, while on a Japanese face it may just as easily mean embarrassment. Clearly, culture influences emotional expressions.
Many studies on emotional expressions try to lớn answer the question whether _________.